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Safeguarding in health and social care Coursework Sample

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Safeguarding in health and social care

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TASK 1 LO1: THE REASON SOME INDIVIDUALS SUCH AS MRS. P AS WELL AS GROUPS MAY BE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MISTREATMENT AND/OR DAMAGE TO AND OTHERS INDIVIDUALS.

The report is related to Mrs. P, a widow in her early 80’s. The situation was linked to an abuse scandal on the treatment of the elderly people. This has resulted in the abuse as well as self-harm of Mrs. P. It should be noted that elderly people are more susceptible to this sort of mistreatment as they need the additional care as well as safety (Ansello, 2010). Therefore, in this situation, it is critical to prevent the adults from the abuse because they are vulnerable due to their advancing age, illness as well as other disabilities. Generally, vulnerable adults are unable to take care of themselves. Therefore, they have mental and physical health needs which require proper care and attention (Ansello, 2010). The caregivers should provide the vulnerable adults with appropriate treatment with compassion as well as the respect they deserve.

Studies have shown that adults are more vulnerable and have a higher risk of abuse due to the numerous reasons. These reasons include isolation whereby they are not in contact with the family, friends or neighbours (Cambridge, 2000). Besides, these adults have the memory problem, and they have a challenge of communicating with others. According to Cambridge (2000) addiction to drugs and alcohol is also another reason that increases vulnerability. Also, the adults can not be able to access care provision and require more emotional and financial support.

Studies have shown that the adults are more open to abuse because of their disability as well as mental illness. Due to their high dependency on others, their vulnerability towards the abuse increases. Taking care of these adults is quite challenging because they have diverse needs. Their demand, as well as requirements, gives rise to an abuse situation. It is vital to note that the stress that accompanies the care for the elderly makes the caregiver impatient ultimately resulting in abuse.

1.2 RE-EXAMINE RISK ASPECTS THAT RESULT TO THE OCCURRENCE OF MISTREATMENT AND/OR DAMAGE TO MRS. P AS WELL AS OTHERS INDIVIDUALS.

Studies have shown that the most noteworthy risk factors resulting in abuse in elderly include the inability of the carer to adjust with them as well as cope with the associated stress, depression among the carers, minimized support from the carers, drug abuse, the dementia intensity or illness among the elderly, social isolation, patient with the history of domestic hostility As well as the old person’s physical and spoken violence.

In the situation of Mrs. P, mistreatment was undertaken by her relatives whereby they misused her money as well as isolated her. This resulted in the emotional abuse to Mrs. P. It should be noted that this sort of mistreatment can result to hopelessness among the old individuals, and can be involed in alcohol addiction as well as drug abuse which consequently deteriorates the circumstances. The desert among older persons as well as the disappointment regarding caretaking obligation represent the maximum number of accounted instances of the elderly mistreatment.

Signs that indicate elderly abuse comprise the changes in the behaviour of elder and the frequent argument with the care providers. In addition, the elders become hostile as well as appears unkept. The observable symptoms of mistreatment comprise lesions or bruises making the susceptible elderly individual become fearful of residing unaccompanied with given persons. It should be noted that susceptible olderly persons look for expressive support, assistance in solving predicaments, tangible support, societal friendship as well as the support associated to self-worth. The expressive mistreatment may result in amplified isolation as well as loneliness among the old people since they by now have comparatively lesser societal systems. Therefore, there is a need for the carer to take the accountability of aiding the susceptible old people to shun these sorts of mistreatment as well as the associated self-harm.

TASK 1B: LO1: 1.3 ANALYSE THE RESULT OF SOCIETAL (I.E. WELLBEING; ACCOMMODATION, LEARNING; DEFICIENCY, SOCIAL EXCLUSION AND DRAWBACK, NETWORKS OF SUPPORT); AND CULTURAL FACTORS (I.E. ETHNICITY; PREJUDICE AND RELIGIOUS CONVICTION) IN BROAD.

At the meeting, there was a debate amid the people of diverse societies of Easter part of London regard the result of societal as well as artistic aspects on diverse types of abuse. The discussion at the conference showed that social and cultural aspects are the main reason that results to adult vulnerability (Sobsey, 1994). This situation is contributed by numerous unwanted circumstances. There are numerous types of abuse that may lead to the suffering among the elderly. They include:

Physical Abuse

According to Sobsey (1994), Physical abuse refers to the physical ill treatments that result to the physical injury in an individual. This can occur due to the withholding of care, prevention of access to the healthcare and the use of inappropriate treatment as well as other related techniques. Physical abuse results in the confinement and isolation among the vulnerable adults. Also, the physical abuse is evident when there is over medication given to the patients.

Sexual Abuse

According to Brown (1993), sexual assault refers to the form of coerced sexual behaviours from an old person. This comprises rape, inapt touching as well as incest. The sexual mistreatment can be undertaken by a day-care employee, domestic employee, as well as a personal assistant. It results to STI amid the old persons as well can reduce the faith that they on their caregivers.

Emotional Abuse

Emotional mistreatment occurs as a result of rejection, humiliation as well as desert. This kind of abuse can lead to depression among the elderly consequently resulting in harmful alcohol addiction of alcohol and drug abuse that can even worsen their conditions. It is vital to note that neglect among the elderly and failure regarding care obligations constitutes the maximum number of accounted cases of the aged mistreatment.

Impact of Social aspects

Social aspects comprise the wellbeing, learning, accommodation, financial deficiency, societal segregation or squat social rank. These aspects have the significant outcome regarding an individual’s wellbeing. It is vital to note that the low socioeconomic position has the chief impact since it results to the incapability in accessing the healthcare facilities as well as low education. Also, it should be noted that low socio-economic position has compound features since it includes the worthiness of health along with learning as well as income (Carson et al., 2007). These unnecessary inequalities have resulted in long term impairments and illness among the elderly. The capability of investing in the healthiness is linked with a person’s health. The widening divergences in the socio-economic position have raised the wellbeing variations leading to elderly emotional mistreatment. In addition, shortage is also another aspect that makes old person to be susceptible towards the mistreatment. Due to their financial dependency, their self-worth is greatly affected increasing the possibility of not getting along with the carer consequently resulting in the abuse (Carson et al., 2007).

Impact of Cultural Aspects

The cultural aspects comprise the prejudice among the different races. The prejudice based on the colour, class or statement of belief makes the old person susceptible. Usually, they are often leftover because of these aspects by diverse health care givers. The prejudice is the key rationale explaining the physical mistreatment which leaves the old person in isolation in dealing with their health issues (Aldana, 2001).

The situation is prevailing in the East London whereby individuals discriminated does not access the vital health services. In addition to their low social economic status, these factors have compounded to their challenges leading to the mental stress as well as other serious ailments. It should be noted that settlers from other parts of the world to Eastern part of London are also having the similar problems.

The racial prejudice is connected with hypertension in old people, further leads to the brutal nervousness. The elderly having this situation desist themselves from the community as a whole.

Category of Self Harm

According to Aldana (2001), elderly abuse is associated with health inequalities as a result of unequal distribution of health facilities. Aldana (2001) further argues that individuals with low socioeconomic position are susceptible to health dangers as well are expected to get into harmful behaviors such as smoking, alcohol addiction, inadequate diet, dependency on drugs, etc.

These habits are detrimental and can result to numerous the ailments in the elderly person. The state of depression can lead to numerous risks, and it worsens the condition of the adults. For instance, it can result to death or increase their dependency regarding the healthcare givers. The diverse kinds of mistreatment, as well as the outcome of societal as well as cultural environment, are prevailing in majority of the European countries. It has resulted in diverse negative effects as it leads to mistreatment as well as association in self-harming actions (Aldana, 2001)

TASK 2: LO2: 2.1 ANALYSE THE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES IN PRESENT LAWS AS WELL AS STRATEGY ASSOCIATED WITH THE KIND OF MISTREATMENT FOUND IN YOUR CASE STUDY.

Daniel Pelka, Keanu Williams, and Amanda Hutton cases are connected with child abuse. The children were tormented as well as killed by their guardians in the UK. Before their death, the NHS also contacted them as well as accounted the case of child mistreatment. They children were hospitalized several times, but the care providers failed in their duties to of protecting them. These cases raised the alarm resulting to numerous laws regarding the healthcare givers with the purpose of minimizing the scenarios of child mistreatment (Laming, 2003).

The Children’s Act 2004

Currently, the children safeguard law is founded on the Children Act, 1989. This act has comprehensive regulations and systems for local establishments to use in the protection of the kids from mistreatment. According to Laming (2003), after the death of Daniel Pelka, Keanu Williams and Amanda Hutton, the Government conducted an inquiry and introduced new legislation that improved the child protection in England. After the Children Act, 2004 various other Act and amendments have taken place. They include: the Child and Youth Law 2008; the Child and Adoption Law 2006; the Boundaries, Nationality and Migration Law 2009; the Apprenticeships, Proficiency, Child and Education Law 2009 as well as the Education Act 2011(Wallace, 2007).

All the legislations were undertaken with the aim of defending the kids against a variety of mistreatment such as child employment, physical mistreatment in shape of retribution as well as sexual violence (Wallace, 2007). Although child ill-treatment is a disgraceful act, there are numerous individuals implicated in this illegal practice. The present laws have played a key role in protecting the cases of child violence in Wales as well as England. The legislations have obligated the illegal accountability regarding the individuals who are implicated in these acts. This has minimized the cases associated to child exploitation.

2.2 EXPLAIN THE RESPONSIBILITY OF DISSIMILAR EXPERTS IN DEFENDING SUSCEPTIBLE SERVICE USERS FROM MISTREATMENT

There are diverse professional that help in protecting service users from abuse. These professional include:

NHS Centre

The NHS Centre offers quick accessibility to the people. There are 66 centres in England at almost every suitable location. It is vital to note that NHS Centre also offer the counselling as well as information using the telephone. In addition, they give the guidelines of self-care in specific health circumstances.

Primary care trust

The primary care trust has a responsibility of providing the primary health services to people. It has a dedicated team that aid in the provision of preventive health care as well as the promotion of health. The primary care trust work in line to the reduction of the health disparities in the local societies (Marmot, 2005).

General Practitioners

General Practitioners play a critical role regarding provision of the healthcare services. Generally, they are the first people whom the victims contact. Every individual in United Kingdom has the privilege of registering with General Practitioners (Marmot, 2005).

In the case of Daniel Pelka, the professionals involved are; Police, Teachers, Health Visitor and children protection service. In the case of Keanu Williams, the professionals involved include Child protection workers, social worker and police officers. In the case of Amanda Hutton, the involved professionals include child protection services, NHS and social worker (Marmot, 2005).

TASK 3: LO3: 3.1 EXPLAIN PRESENT CUSTOMS AS WELL AS SCHEMES DELIBERATED TO REDUCE MISTREATMENT

As a healthcare worker, there is a need to safeguard the children from abuse. To achieve this, it is imperative to have a good understanding regarding the present customs as well as schemes of reducing the mistreatment. The health as well as social care foundations require in working jointly efficiently either through alliance or partnership. The two terms i.e. partnership and association can be used interchangeably. In order to recuperate the conditions, the partnership between the healthiness and social-care services are critical. Through corporation, the employees of social service axis as well as wide-ranging consultants will act as a controller to the access of community health services through patients’ referrals (Stevenson, 1996). On the other hand, the social care segment is accountable regarding the management of finances adequacy for housing services, home-care services as well as nursing residents so as to manage the accessibility via care organization as well as appraisal. Currently, there are numerous partnership legislations including the Health Act 1999, Care Trust, and Children’s Trust. The Health Act 1999 encompasses the 3 elastic authorities for the societal as well as healthcare services givers. This includes the grouping of their financial plans, generating the incorporation of service givers and to expand the chief commission actions (Stevenson, 1996). The Care Trust has around 10 organizations as well is seen as the ideal replica for a total amalgamation of social and healthcare in UK. On the other hand, the kid’s trust is implicit in nature as compared to adult care trust. This is because it puts more effort on gauging the universal structure for kids, information involvement as well as operating with the kids as well as the youth (Stevenson, 1996).

It is vital to note that the partnership for safe guarding the children must have the recognized power, partisanship from whole constitutional organisations, partisanship from self-governing as well as charitable service givers, representatives from carers’ and service users’ organisations, executive management for supervision, as well as a strategic plan (Stevenson, 1996).

Studies have shown that preventing the children from mistreatment is founded on 3e main aspects i.e. paying attention to them as well as their caregivers, superseding in the doubtful events, cultivating others in recognising as well as suitably report the mistreatment. This can be achieved via the development of the children day-care programs, expansion of the restricted relief care organizations, provision of the local respite care agencies as well as aiding them in ending the self-harming actions such as smoking and use of alcohol (Stevenson, 1996).

It is vital to teach families as well as friends to distinguish the mistreatment in children. They should recognize the signs that indicate children mistreatment of any kind as well as reporting it right away to relevant authorities. In addition, they must ensure that the children are not left isolated by regularly taking care of them. This will help the children by preventing them from any potential abuse (Stevenson, 1996).

After educating the family and friends, the children must also be counselled on various issues that aid in avoiding the abuse. There is a need for the children to make an attempt of being in touch with acquaintances as well as family members so that they do not have a feeling isolation. They should not keep quiet if they are hurt by their friends or relative (Stevenson, 1996).

3.2 EVALUATE THE EFFICIENCY OF WORKING CUSTOMS AS WELL AS POLICIES APPLIED TO REDUCE MISTREATMENT IN HEALTH AND SOCIETAL CARE SURROUNDINGS.

All these issues will be very useful for reducing the mistreatment of adults. The lawful corporation legislations also have had an encouraging impact through reduction of the mistreatment cases in last few years. Over time, work of the health as well as social-care has become inclusive as well as more sophisticated in terms of the services offered to individuals. These corporation have aided in creating mutual philosophies as well as values; assenting to the particular changes in the strategies; eagerness in the exploration of the novel choices for services; determination of the agreed precincts; assenting to the responsibilities regarding to provision, buying as well as tasking; identification of the established pools of resources; making sure the efficient management; giving the capability for adequate growth and giving the ability for satisfactory expansion.

The successful partnership depends on numerous factors including the availability of sufficient possessions for a company, growth of support, corresponding the staff performance as well as attaining the support.

3.3 DISCUSS IN YOUR RESEARCH WHAT POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS TO OPERATIONAL CUSTOMS AS WELL AS EXISTING APPROACHES TO REDUCE MISTREATMENT IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL-CARE REGARDING THE CASE STUDY LO2

According to Wallace (2007), it is possible to achieve the policies for the health as well as social givers. In addition, the children having particular requirement as well as their relevant carers should have the abilities and acquaintance of communicating efficiently with the social as well as care givers. Conqerently, the employees of health as well as social-care should converse with them successfully and attempt to make up their mind about their doubts. There is a need for the providers to design personalized care strategies for the people having long term circumstances with their best information as well as capabilities. After designing the detailed plan, there is a need to be conversed with the patient. There should be incorporated advance towards the designing care approach and thus companies should work together among themselves

If the stated policies can be put into practice, it is possible to overcome the barriers to corporation can be removed easily and the society can be saved from the scandals such as the abuse of the three children case study in Lo2 which resulted to deaths. This will allow the givers to make sure that people get most excellent services as well as care encompassing personalized care plan. The road to achievement for these corporations isn’t rough; just it needs more tailored advance as well as care. There is a need to understand the fact that societal as well as healthcare givers should work in cooperation to provide the multifaceted need of individuals (Wallace, 2007).

References

Bertram, T., Pascal, C., Bokhari, S., Gasper, M. and Holtermann, S. (2002), Early Excellence Centre Pilot Programme: Second Evaluation Report 2000–2001, Nottingham: DfES Publications

Cameron, A. and Lart, R. (2003), Factors promoting and obstacles hindering joint working: a systematic review of the research evidence, Journal of Integrated Care, vol 11, no 2, pp 9−17

Carnwell, R. and Buchanan, J. (2004), Effective practice in Health and Social Care, England: Open University press, P.265

Christiansen, A. and Roberts, K. (2005), Integrating health and social care assessment and care management: findings from a pilot project evaluation, Primary Health Care Research and Development, vol 6, no 3, pp 269−277.12http://www.pasauk.org.uk/upload/public/featurebox/Safeguarding Adults. Roles%2 0and responsibilities in health and care services.pdf3

Levin, R. F., Overholt, E. F., Melnyk, B. M., Barnes, M. and Vetter, M. J. (2011). Fostering evidence-based practice to improve nurse and cost outcomes in a community health setting. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 35(1), pp. 21-33.

McLean, S. (2010). Autonomy, Consent and the Law. London: Routledge-Cavendish. Mendelstem, M. (2009). Safeguarding vulnerable adults and the law. London: Jessica Kingsley. Publishers.

Moon, J.A. (2008). Reflection in learning and professional development: theory and practice. London: Routledge Falme

NAO Commissioning and commissioning from civil society http://www.nao.org.uk/guidance__good_practice/third_sector/successful

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